People who like endurance sports must have problems with the war against summer. Nowadays, there are many popular marathons, triathlons and many other competitive sports that must be continuously exercised for several hours. Everyone is a high risk group of heatstroke. Moreover, the danger does not fall because of the experience of the game. Sometimes it is even because of self-confidence and self-righteousness, and the result is unexpected.
First, the temperature boundary
Speaking of all kinds of thermal damage, for the athletes, you must remember a temperature boundary: 32 degrees Celsius, above which the health will be heatstroke due to high heat and humidity. The body temperature center of the hypothalamus of the brain will command the body.
As the skin's blood increases, the blood output from the heart increases. If the blood is insufficient, it will force the body's blood to redistribute, so that the blood of the organs will be reduced, so that the skin circulation will increase to assist in perspiration and to let the body go out of the tropics. Imagine, when we were running, why did the things we ate indigested? Because the proportion of blood distributed to the skin is increased. If the organ is ischemic, then the efficiency of the digestive system will fall again, and the water will not be able to enter the body effectively, a vicious circle.
Second, endurance exercise requires the most cardiopulmonary function. Cardiopulmonary function is the main palm circulation, and circulation is so important for wicking heat. Good heart and lung function should be less prone to heat stroke.
Second, the heat index calculation formula
Celsius temperature + (relative humidity X0.1)
Psychological preparation before the marathon is crucial, especially for the sense of heat stroke. When doing a marathon, how do you assess the climate today when you warm up? Will it be hot when you run? Warm-up will definitely sweat, can sweating evaporate before the game? The quickest way is to use the heat index formula to quickly judge the starting danger index for the day. It is only necessary to note that the heat index generally rises with time after the start. If the heat index is too high at the start, there is a psychological preparation for not to score. This is very important. For an athlete's competitive psychological quality, excessive hard work will increase the risk of heatstroke at a high speed.
Third, to understand the way the body heat is lost
Convective, conductive, radiative, and evaporative heat dissipation modes play a major role in heatstroke prevention. If the ambient temperature is forced to 36 degrees (our body temperature), then the three ways of convection, conduction, and radiation will fail, and the heat will only be evaporated.
The cooling methods formed by these four major routes are all important, but the most perceptible for running marathons is evaporation. Evaporation relies on sweating; the sweat evaporates and then carries away the heat. So we can have two key points about evaporation:
A. If you feel that the moisture is heavy enough to run the marathon, the sweat that flows out can not be effectively evaporated through the environment. This is an extremely dangerous warning, and he is a person who is full of strength and overcomes the will. It is a serious warning.
B. Heatstroke treatment. Evaporation is a major focus of heatstroke treatment, and it can be processed immediately and immediately. It is relatively simple in terms of the processing flow. The human body is dissipated by sweating due to 90% of the heat. Find the sprayer, fill it with cold water (15 degrees Celsius) and spray it continuously to the patient. Use a fan to evaporate the mist to remove the heat.
Fourth, relative humidity
Why is the relative humidity pulled out for independent discussion? The last ring of the four major heat dissipation effects, if even the evapotranspiration is lost, what is the game like? Safety is important! How much relative humidity will evaporate in the last ring? 75% will make the body's use of wicking evaporation almost ineffective.
In other words, if the temperature exceeds 36 degrees and the relative humidity is 75%, the possibility of heat stroke will increase dramatically.
The authors share the speed at which a few games with damp heat preparations can pass the end and remain slightly OK. (The record is not important, save the life first. This is to turn the mind into enjoyment and relaxation.) There are several things and concepts that are important and necessary:
A. Well-drained hat
B. Sunglasses with anti-UV effect
C. Do not use long-sleeved compression clothing or compression pants. It is not that compression is not good or important. It is because even the best material can not effectively dissipate heat when it reaches extreme heat. Ultra-thin sleeves are all right for sun protection. (But I am wearing vests with trousers or short compression pants)
D. If you can, start the diet the day before. The diet is light, so don't increase the digestive burden when you are close to the game. And pay attention to drinking water, indeed make up the body's water volume.
E. A good game, starting with diet. And be sure to sleep well the day before. Eat two to three hours early in the morning to eat, so that the body has the opportunity to put good food energy into the body pocket.
F. Make up the water and electrolytes, we have the chips of victory, at least safely crossing the finish line. I will drink two to three cups per water station in summer (more than twice that of winter) and three or four sponges to cool down.
I will drink a little bit of salt and water for one hour. I will prepare my own salt sugar for important competitions. It is delicious and safe.
G. Finally, the most important thing is to keep your heart inside and not to do unnecessary competition under the scorching sun.
The severity of heat stroke can be directly sent to the intensive care unit, and should not be ignored. Complications may even include: diffuse intravascular coagulation abnormalities, acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia!
Five, water supplement
Whether it is hot or not, water supplement is the key to success, even the life-saving. When you lose a lot of water, you can replenish your sports drink every 20 to 30 minutes, or drink one gram of cold water per liter of salt to delay the loss of electrolyte and avoid cramps.
That hydrating, what other concepts do we have to pay attention to? For cold drinks, it looks more delicious in the summer, but be careful, you should drink cold drinks. Because iced beverages will contract the blood vessels of the stomach, and the body must warm the beverage to a temperature suitable for absorption, which also consumes energy. In the game, the energy consumption is fierce. At this time, there is not much energy, and it is necessary to allocate it to the warming ice water for absorption. It is not good. Therefore, it is recommended to supplement the water and drink it in small quantities.
Here, athletes or marathon runners must also be aware that if a large amount of drinking water is distributed, the sodium ions in the blood will be rapidly diluted, and the kidneys will not be able to make adjustments, which may cause hyponatremia, commonly known as "water poisoning". Those will be dizzy, weak, and seriously coma.
In terms of water replenishment, it needs to be supplemented with 250cc-1000cc in one hour. If it is thirsty, it can not be supplemented more than 1500cc per hour. Even if it is hot and thirsty, the amount of drinking water per day cannot exceed 12000cc.
Sixth, heat stroke, how can we help?
Usually we meet at the marathon track is the first scene of the incident, everyone can help, is to get the maximum survival rate for the patients before the arrival of the ambulance staff. If you do these processes, you can greatly improve the conditions later.
a. Move the patient to a cool place
b. Remove the patient's clothing, males can only have underwear
c. Spray the patient's whole body with spray-like cold water, as for the front of the fan
d. Place an ice pack or ice towel at the passage of the aorta, such as the neck, armpits, and groin
e. Place the patient on an open, air-conditioned vehicle and send it to the doctor as soon as possible.
f. Continuous cooling treatment during transportation
What can't be done when the heat stroke is sent to the emergency department (three nos):
a. Do not use ice water to cool down, too cold patients will tremble, causing skin vasoconstriction, but not heat
b. Do not wipe the patient's body with alcohol
c. Do not use antipyretic drugs, high fever caused by heat stroke, the cause is caused by the external thermal environment, and the body caused by fever or cold, the pathogens produce different heat sources, antipyretics do not help the heatstroke of patients with heatstroke .
Mouth: Undressing, cooling, spraying water mist, blowing, you must repeat it!
Thermal damage is a very urgent situation. If handled properly, not only can you save a life, but you can also minimize the damage.
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